The binary number system is a base-2 number system. This means it only has two numbers: 0 and 1. All information in a computer (words, pictures, movies, sound) is stored and transmitted as sequences of bits, or binary digits.
A bit is a single piece of data which can be thought of as either zero or one. Each binary number is made up of bits, for example, the number 1010 is made of 4 bits. When you have 8 bits altogether, this is known as a byte. A byte may look like the number 01000100 and in this case represents the letter 'D'.
A use of two states or permissible values to represent data, such as ON and OFF positions of a light switch or transistors in a computer silicon chip that can be in either the electrical state of ON or OFF.
Binary data are typically represented as a series of single digits referred to as binary digits (or bits) due to each taking on the value of either 0 or 1. The image below shows how a dashed line might be represented in binary.
Learn more about it
This 7-minute video explores the nature of representation as an arbitrary communication device.
This 11-minute video explores number representations, including the development of the binary system.
How to teach it
Students develop an understanding of how computers store and send digital images and they are able to represent images in a digital format.
In this sequence students learn how the binary number system works and how text can be represented using binary numbers. Students learn one of the representations of the standard English alphabet used by computers. They also look at how the same concepts apply to non-text data and analyse the effectiveness of some binary representation techniques to various types of data.
This short sequence focuses on what a binary number is, what a decimal number is (revision), why binary numbers are important in digital systems and how to read and understand a binary number.
Use these activities with your students to explore how computers use just two symbols, zero and one, to represent information.
This is a wide selection of lesson plans about topics including vector graphics and binary.
Please note: Also a secondary resource
Use these activities with your students to explore how computers store and transmit data to create a black-and-white image.
Please note: Also a lower secondary resource
For the classroom
The binary puzzle is a new and challenging logic puzzle that students can solve by reasoning. Only zeros and ones occur in the puzzle, but this turns out to be more complicated than it first seems.
What other schools are doing
Bits of Binary
Teachers at Good News Lutheran School are exploring ways to teach the content and skills of the new Digital Technologies Curriculum. The Year 5 teachers collaborated with the Digital Learning Facilitator to present a sequence of lessons introducing the concept of binary numbers through online and unplugged activities.