Scope and sequence (F–10)
Learning programs to support implementation
Sequenced topics that could be used in teaching the Australian Curriculum Digital Technologies curriculum to address the content descriptions of the curriculum. The Scope and sequence has been updated to support teachers to implement AC:DT V9.0.
Select a topic across a two year cycle
Recommended any combination of three topics per year.
Choose a combination of units that suits your students and context.
Cycle one (Year 7)
Cycle one (Year 7)
Jan  Jun  Dec  

Cycle two (Year 8)
Jan  Jun  Dec  

Binary numbers
Overview
This unit introduces students to the binary system of ones and zeros used by digital technology to store and process numbers. They also learn how text, images and sound can be stored this way.
Achievement standards
By the end of Year 8 students acquire, interpret and model data with spreadsheets and represent data with integers and binary.
Australian Curriculum
Content descriptions
Data representation AC9TDI8K03, AC9TDI8K04
Related content and General Capabilities
Mathematics: Number AC9M7N02
Digital Literacy: Managing and operating
Critical and Creative Thinking
This topic enables students to
 convert whole numbers between decimal and binary
 demonstrate how text, colour, images and sound are stored in binary form
 discuss why digital technology uses binary to process and store data.
Supplementary information
The four sequences in this unit are designed to be covered in order.
Watch this video for a quick overview of the unit and how to use its resources with your students.
Assessment View assessment advice
Achievement standards
Digital Technologies: Years 78
By the end of Year 8 students acquire, interpret and model data with spreadsheets and represent data with integers and binary.
Assessment tasks
Use this work sample Binary explainer video that shows a student's response to the task: Create a video to explain binary for text, image and sound to a peer.
Use this work sample Designing and implementing a podcast for students to create a podcast where an interviewer and interviewee discuss counting in binary without visual aids.
Rubrics
Use these two rubrics to assess student skills, processes and knowledge.
Representing integers with binary
This rubric provides benchmarks for assessing different levels of complexity and proficiency in:
 counting up using binary bits (ones and zeros)
 converting positive, whole numbers between decimal (base10) and binary (base2) form
 describing why digital technology uses binary to store and process numbers.
Representing data with integers
This rubric provides benchmarks for assessing different levels of complexity and proficiency in:
 converting text into number codes using ASCII
 identifying RGB numbers for pixel colours in an image
 describing how sounds are sampled to produce a sequence of numbers.
Rubric: Representing integers with binary
1 (limited)  2 (basic)  3 (proficient)  4 (advanced)  

Counting up using binary bits (ones and zeros)  demonstrates understanding of binary one and zero representing their equivalents one and zero in decimal  performs counting from zero up to at least 7 using binary bits  performs counting from zero up to at least 7 using binary bits; shows understanding of the increasing number of bits required to reach larger numbers  performs counting from zero up to at least 15 using binary bits; shows understanding of the increasing number of bits required to reach larger numbers 
Converting positive, whole numbers between decimal (base10) and binary (base2) form  demonstrates limited understanding of how to convert numbers between decimal and binary form  using appropriate tools, consistently converts whole numbers between zero and 31 to binary form  using appropriate tools, consistently converts whole numbers between zero and 31 to binary form; demonstrates understanding of place value in base2 digits  using appropriate tools, consistently converts whole numbers between zero and 127 to binary form; demonstrates understanding of place value in base2 digits 
Describing why digital technology uses binary to store and process numbers  demonstrates limited understanding of why digital technology uses binary to store and process numbers  demonstrates basic awareness that digital technology relies on offon states for the storage and/or processing of data  employs vague or abstract references to digital hardware to describe why it uses binary to store and process numbers  employs clear references to digital hardware to describe why it uses binary to store and process numbers 
Rubric: Representing data with integers
1 (limited)  2 (basic)  3 (proficient)  4 (advanced)  

Converting text into number codes using ASCII  demonstrates limited understanding of numerical ASCII codes representing text characters  makes mostly correct conversions of text characters into numerical ASCII codes or their binary forms  makes mostly correct conversions of text characters into numerical ASCII codes and their binary forms  consistently makes correct conversions of text characters into numerical ASCII codes and their binary forms 
Identifying RGB numbers for pixel colours in an image  demonstrates limited understanding of how colours are represented digitally  identifies correct red, green and blue numbers for RGB colours most of the time  identifies correct red, green and blue numbers for RGB colours most of the time; demonstrates understanding of how number of bits affects available number of colours  consistently identifies correct red, green and blue numbers for RGB colours; demonstrates understanding of how number of bits affects available number of colours 
Describing how sounds are sampled to produce a sequence of numbers  demonstrates limited understanding of how sounds are sampled to produce a sequence of numbers  describes in basic terms the mapping of sound waveforms  describes in basic terms the mapping of sound waveforms; demonstrates understanding of how the number of bits affects accuracy of digital sound  uses appropriate vocabulary to describe the mapping of sound waveforms; demonstrates understanding of how bit rate and sample rate affect accuracy of digital sound 
Unit sequence
This topic offers 4 sequential units
Unit 1
Numbers to binary
Students learn to convert whole numbers into binary.Unit 2
Text to binary
Students learn to use the ASCII system for encoding and explore the Unicode system.Unit 3
Images to binary
Students learn about raster images and vector images are stored in computers.Unit 4
Sound to binary
Students learn about how digital audio is stored and represented in computers.Numbers to binary
What is this about?
The nature of digital systems means that they store and process numbers in binary form, as sequences of zeros and ones. Students can learn to convert whole numbers into binary via multiple paths: by recognising patterns when counting in binary, by creating a conversion table, by understanding binary as a base2 number system, and by using digital tools to convert numbers back and forth.
Content description
Explain how and why digital systems represent integers in binary AC9TDI8K04
This sequence enables students to:
 count in binary
 convert whole numbers between decimal form and binary form
 discuss how the number of binary digits limits the size of values stored
 understand why digital systems store and process numbers in binary.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
Years 7–8 How binary digits work?
Create bracelets using the binary of letters in your name.
Requires
 beads and string material
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 practice counting in a binary (base2) system.
Years 7–8 Why Do Computers Use 1s and 0s?
Watch this video to introduce why computers use binary.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets to view video
Suggested time
7 minsEnables students to:
 explore why digital technology uses binary to store and process data.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Introduction to binary
Find out more 
The binary game
Find out more 
Binary memory game
Find out more 
Creating my own spreadsheet
Find out more
Years 7–8 Introduction to binary
Use this lesson to reinforce and practise counting in binary.
Requires
 printed sheets (documents provided)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 practise counting in a binary (base2) system.
Years 7–8 The binary game
Play an online game to practise converting between decimal and binary.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 practise converting between decimal and binary numbers.
Years 7–8 Binary memory game
Play an unplugged memory game to practise converting between decimal and binary.
Requires
 printed sheets (documents provided)
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 practise converting between decimal and binary numbers.
Years 7–8 Creating my own spreadsheet
Create a spreadsheet to convert decimal numbers to binary in this lesson.
Requires
 computers, laptops or tablets
 spreadsheet software (for example, Excel, Sheets, Numbers)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 automate the conversion of binary to decimal numbers.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

Representing numbers and letters with binary
Find out more 
Data representation – binary module
Find out more 
Hexadecimal
Find out more
Years 7–8 Representing numbers and letters with binary
Watch this video to extend into concepts such as floating point and digital storage.
Suggested time
11 minutesEnables students to:
 explore concepts of binary storage in more depth, including the floatingpoint system used to store nonintegers.
Years 7–8 Data representation – binary module
Work through this online module to combine Python programming with binary concepts. Not recommended for introducing Python coding for the first time. See unit Generalpurpose programming.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 apply generalpurpose programming in Python to work with binary numbers.
Years 7–8 Hexadecimal
Use this bitesized lesson to extend into hexadecimal, a base16 system with a close connection to binary.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 convert numbers between binary, decimal and hexadecimal
 explore why hexadecimal is useful when working with binary.
Further reading and professional learning
Years 7–8 Representing negative numbers in practice
Read this online textbook segment about how negative numbers are represented.
Suggested time
30 minutesYears 7–8 Hexadecimal number system
Watch this video for a detailed explanation of the hexadecimal (base16) system.
Suggested time
5 minutesText to binary
What is this about?
Since numbers are readily converted into binary form for computers to store and process, getting text into binary is achieved by expressing letters and other characters with numerical codes. Students can learn to use the ASCII system for encoding Latin letters and other characters this way, as well as exploring the much larger Unicode system.
Content description
Investigate how digital systems represent text, image and audio data using integers AC9TDI8K03
This sequence enables students to:
 express letters and other characters as numerical codes
 learn and apply ASCII codes
 explore the Unicode system
 make the connection from letters and characters to numbers, through to binary.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
Years 7–8 Binary bracelets
Create bracelets using the binary of letters in your name.
Requires
 beads and string material
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 encode the letters of their names in binary using ASCII codes.
Years 7–8 ASCII table
View the complete ASCII table with binary and decimal codes.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Enables students to:
 explore why digital technology uses binary to store and process data.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

ASCII and binary representation
Find out more 
ASCII quiz
Find out more 
Understanding ASCII and Unicode
Find out more 
Characters
Find out more
Years 7–8 ASCII and binary representation
Use this lesson to learn and practise converting text to binary with ASCII codes.
Requires
 printed sheets (documents provided)
Suggested time
1 hoursEnables students to:
 learn and practise writing text in binary using ASCII codes.
Years 7–8 ASCII quiz
Practise ASCII numerical codes with this simple online quiz game.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 ASCII table
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 practise the numerical ASCII codes for letters.
Years 7–8 Understanding ASCII and Unicode
Watch this video for an introduction to the why and how of the Unicode system.
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 explore the Unicode system, which allows for far more characters and symbols than ASCII.
Years 7–8 Characters
Use this bitesized lesson to recap and practise ASCII.
Requires
 computers, laptops or tablets
 spreadsheet software (for example, Excel, Sheets, Numbers)
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 revise how to use ASCII codes to represent text characters as binary numbers.
Resources to extend and integrate learning
Years 7–8 Binary and data
Watch this video to cover binary and text and jump forward into how to store images and sound.
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 get an overview of how text, images and sound are stored in binary.
Years 7–8 Data representation: text module
Work through this online module to combine Python programming with Unicode. Not recommended for introducing Python coding for the first time. See unit Generalpurpose programming.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 apply generalpurpose programming in Python to work with Unicode.
Further reading and professional learning
Introduction to Unicode
Read this online textbook segment to delve a little deeper into Unicode systems.
Suggested time
30 minutesImages to binary
What is this about?
Since numbers are readily converted into binary form for computers to store and process, getting images into binary is achieved by representing them as sequences of numbers. Students can learn how each pixel in a raster image (like a photo) contains the numbers for its colour, while vector images (like clip art) are stored and drawn as geometrical paths.
Content description
Investigate how digital systems represent text, image and audio data using integers AC9TDI8K03
This sequence enables students to:
 understand and use the RGB system to represent any colour
 explain how raster images work
 explore how vector images work
 make the connection from images to numbers through to binary.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
Years 7–8 Images, pixels and RGB
Watch this video to introduce key concepts about image representation.
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 understand how any colour can be expressed by three numbers, for red, for green and for blue
 explore how raster images are a pixel mapping of a picture.
Years 7–8 Pixspy
Use this online tool to quickly and simply examine the pixels in any image. Without internet access, students can examine RGB colours using the eyedropper tool in many applications.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 inspect any pixel of an image to see the red, green and blue number components for its colour.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Representing images in digital systems
Find out more 
Images and colours
Find out more 
Pixelation
Find out more 
Understanding bitmap pictures
Find out more 
What are vector and raster graphics?
Find out more
Years 7–8 Representing images in digital systems
Students learn about the RGB colour model and how digital systems use integers to represent images.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 test colours by adjusting red, green and blue values
 explore how increasing the number of binary digits allows for more colours
 revise knowledge.
Years 7–8 Images and colours
Use the interactives in this online textbook segment to explore the binary bits used in raster images.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 make the connection between red, green and blue numbers and binary.
Years 7–8 Pixelation
Work through this interactive tutorial to build raster images binary bit by binary bit.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 build raster images at the binary level
 explore how increasing the number of binary digits allows for more colours.
Years 7–8 Understanding bitmap pictures
Use this interactive blog post to learn and practise raster image concepts.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 test colours by adjusting red, green and blue values
 explore how increasing the number of binary digits allows for more colours
 revise knowledge.
Years 7–8 What are vector and raster graphics?
Watch this video to discover the difference between vector and raster graphics.
Suggested time
2 minutesEnables students to:
 explore how vector and raster are very different ways of storing art, though both use sequences of numbers.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

The maths behind RGB images
Find out more 
Data representation: images module
Find out more 
Colours tutorial
Find out more 
Vectorbased graphics
Find out more
Years 7–8 The maths behind RGB images
In this lesson, students explore the colour model RGB and apply mathematical understandings to convert decimal numbers to binary.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 access to digital tools Pixel viewer and RGB colour mixer
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 describe how digital systems represent integers in binary
 use mathematical operations of multiplication and division to convert a decimal number to binary.
Years 7–8 Data representation: images module
Work through this online module to combine Python programming with raster image concepts. Not recommended for introducing Python coding for the first time. See unit Generalpurpose programming.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 apply generalpurpose programming in Python to work with raster images.
Years 7–8 Colours tutorial
Use this tutorial to combine RGB colour concepts with webpage coding.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 learn about and practise using RGB colour codes in webpage HTML and CSS.
Years 7–8 Vectorbased graphics
Use this tutorial to learn about the SVG format for vector graphics.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 learn about and practise writing code for vector graphics.
Sound to binary
What is this about?
Since numbers are readily converted into binary form for computers to store and process, getting sounds into binary is achieved by sampling their volume waveforms across time. Students can learn how this mapping is done, even visualising the sound waveform itself.
Content description
Investigate how digital systems represent text, image and audio data using integers AC9TDI8K03
This sequence enables students to:
 explore how sound is able to be mapped as a series of numbers
 practise using a digital audio editor to visualise waveforms
 make the connection from audio to numbers through to binary.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
Years 7–8 Binary and data
The latter part of this video introduces at a basic level how audio is mapped.
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 learn a basic concept for how audio is mapped and stored as a sequence of numbers.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning
Years 7–8 Representing audio in digital systems
Use this lesson to investigate how a sound wave is sampled using popular audio software.
Requires
 computers or laptops
 installation of Audacity (free application)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 use software to record audio and visualise its digital samples
 describe the effect of sample rate and bit rate on the accuracy of the sampled audio.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

Digital compression
Find out more 
Sound output
Find out more 
Data representation: audio module
Find out more
Years 7–8 Digital compression
Watch this video for a basic introduction to how digital text, images and audio are compressed to save bits
Suggested time
3 minutesEnables students to:
 get an overview of how text, images and sound are stored in binary
Years 7–8 Sound output
Use these micro:bit tutorials as a starting point for exploring the generation of sound with this device.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 micro:bit devices
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 produce sound from an electronic device
 use visual or generalpurpose programming to code different pitches.
Years 7–8 Data representation: audio module
Work through this online module to combine Python programming with sound concepts. Not recommended for introducing Python coding for the first time. See unit Generalpurpose programming.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 Free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 apply generalpurpose programming in Python to work with audio.
Working with data
Overview
This unit focuses on the skills required to acquire, analyse and visualise data. Students can acquire data from sources ranging from paper and digital surveys to electronic sensors and online data repositories. Spreadsheets and singletable databases can be used for data analysis and visualisation. At each stage, the digital footprint of data solutions is considered.
Achievement standards
By the end of Year 8 students acquire, interpret and model data with spreadsheets and represent data with integers and binary.
They select and use a range of digital tools efficiently and responsibly to create, locate and share content; and to plan, collaborate on and manage projects.
Students manage their digital footprint.
Australian Curriculum
Content descriptions
Acquiring, managing and analysing data AC9TDI8P01, AC9TDI8P02, AC9TDI8P03
Privacy and security AC9TDI8P14
Related content and General Capabilities
Mathematics: Statistics AC9M7ST03, AC9M8ST01, AC9M8ST04
Digital Literacy: Practising digital safety and wellbeing, Investigating, Managing and operating
Critical and Creative Thinking
This topic enables students to
 acquire data from surveys, electronic sensors and data repositories
 apply spreadsheet formulas and techniques to clean and analyse data
 create charts to visualise data
 explore how data is structured and queried in singletable databases
 consider digital footprints, assess which data is essential to purpose and depersonalise data where appropriate.
Supplementary information
This unit focuses on building specific skills rather than framing the data work process within a user story or context. The ‘Collaborative data project’ unit is designed to incorporate skills from this unit into a purposeful design project.
Watch this video for a quick overview of the unit and how to use its resources with your students.
Assessment View assessment advice
Achievement standards
Digital Technologies: Years 7–8
By the end of Year 8 students acquire, interpret and model data with spreadsheets and represent data with integers and binary.
They select and use a range of digital tools efficiently and responsibly to create, locate and share content; and to plan, collaborate on and manage projects.
Students manage their digital footprint.
Assessment task
Use this checklist and star rating for each student to assess students' demonstrated knowledge and skills related to the solar installations data task outlined in the lesson sequence Solar energy installations.
Use the rubric to assess students' proficiency in:
 acquiring, storing, and validating data from a range of sources using software
 analysing and visualising data using a range of software
 drawing conclusions and make predictions by identifying trends
 demonstrated knowledge of databases
 modelling and querying attributes using data.
Rubric: Acquiring, storing, validating, visualising, modelling and querying data
Criteria  1 (limited)  2 (basic)  3 (proficient)  4 (advanced) 

Acquire, store, and validate data from a range of sources using software  needs guidance to acquire and store data from sources and may not validate data effectively  shows basic skills to acquire and store data from sources; attempts to validate data with some success  demonstrates accessing relevant data sources, imports and clean data, store data in an organised way ensuring that the data is accurate, reliable, and ready for analysis  demonstrates ability to acquire, store, and validate data from diverse sources using appropriate software, demonstrating thorough validation techniques and error checking 
Analyse and visualise data using a range of software  needs guidance to analyse and visualise data; demonstrates basic understanding of software tools for analysis and visualisation, however, requires support  demonstrates basic ability to analyse and visualise data; uses software tools for analysis and visualisation with some support  demonstrates analysis and visualisation of data using relevant software; demonstrates understanding of software tools and explains ways to analyse and visualise data effectively  use advanced analysis techniques to derive deep insights from the data and creates complex and interactive visualisations that effectively communicate insights from the data, using advanced features of the software to enhance visual representation 
Draw conclusions and make predictions by identifying trends  needs guidance to draw conclusions and make predictions from data; requires support and prompting to identify trends  demonstrates a basic ability to draw conclusions and make predictions from data; identifies trends with some accuracy  draws well considered conclusions referring to relevant data, makes logical predictions from data and identifies trends accurately  draws wellconsidered conclusions based on relevant data and the question being addressed, makes logical predictions using advanced statistical techniques and identifies complex trends and patterns in the data. 
Knowledge of databases  needs guidance to understand basic database concepts  understands basic database concepts, but may struggle with applying them in practice  demonstrates a solid understanding of database concepts and can apply them effectively  demonstrates an advanced understanding of database concepts, including complex topics 
Modelling and querying attributes using data  needs guidance to query attributes of objects and events using structured data; requires support to use software tools effectively for modelling and querying  basic ability to model and query attributes of objects and events using structured data; uses software tools for modelling and querying with some success  demonstrates ability to model and query attributes of objects and events using structured data; uses software tools effectively for modelling and querying  creates complex and dynamic models of objects and events using structured data and uses advanced querying techniques to extract specific information from large and complex datasets 
Unit sequence
This topic offers 3 sequential units
Unit 1
Acquiring data
Students practise different techniques for acquiring data, explore the forms in which this data comes, and consider privacy.Unit 2
Spreadsheets
Students will apply spreadsheet skills, such as filtering, formulas and chart creation.Unit 3
Databases
Students use databases that allow data to be structured in complex and organised ways.Acquiring data
What is this about?
Data can be collected from paper and digital surveys, from electronic sensors and from online data repositories. Students practise different techniques for acquiring data, explore the forms in which this data comes, and consider privacy by discussing the digital footprint of data solutions.
Content description
Acquire, store and validate data from a range of sources using software, including spreadsheets and databases AC9TDI8P01
Investigate and manage the digital footprint existing systems and student solutions collect and assess if the data is essential to their purpose AC9TDI8P14
This sequence enables students to:
 collect data from surveys and electronic sensors
 visit data repositories and examine the forms in which data can be acquired from them
 consider data privacy, digital footprints and how to assess which data is essential to purpose.
Supplementary information
Some of the suggested ideas enable integration of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures crosscurriculum priority.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce

Acquiring and preparing data from online data repositories
Find out more 
Data Analysis
Find out more 
Women in data science introduction
Find out more 
Lexi's Coffee Business
Find out more
7–8 Acquiring and preparing data from online data repositories
In this lesson, students develop skills to acquire, store and validate data from online data repositories. They learn how to navigate popular data sources and download data for use in spreadsheets.
Requires
 Internet access, computers, laptops or tablets
 access to internet resources such as BOM
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 understand how to access online data repositories
 set specific goals for data acquired
 navigate data repositories and download data
 identify common issues in downloaded data
 clean and prepare data for analysis.
7–8 Data Analysis
Watch this video for an overview of the full data analysis process that includes data collection.
Suggested time
3 minutesEnables students to:
 see an example of the big picture process of asking questions, collecting cleaning/ filtering and visualising data, and generating information.
7–8 Women in data science introduction
Watch this video for a peek at some of the work of real data scientists.
Suggested time
8 minutesEnables students to:
 gain exposure to the work of realworld data scientists.
7–8 Lexi's Coffee Business
Use this unplugged lesson to explore how data is used by businesses, and tips for designing a survey.
Requires
 printouts (included in the document)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 conduct a survey for collecting data
 perform basic data analysis.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Exploration in data science course
Find out more 
Kaggle: Datasets
Find out more 
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander connections to digital technologies
Find out more 
Cyber security card game: know your risks
Find out more 
What's your brand?
Find out more
7–8 Exploration in data science course
Select units and sections from this (USbased) curriculum to introduce both principles and skills for data science. This is a considerably long, USbased sequence of learning intended for high school. Teachers may wish to carefully select relevant units and sections for Australian students in Years 7–8.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 spreadsheet software (e.g. Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets)
Suggested time
12 hoursEnables students to:
 explore a range of data science principles and skills including data collection, analysis, presentation and impact.
7–8 Kaggle: Datasets
Use this website to find datasets for many different topics.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 find and download datasets.
7–8 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander connections to digital technologies
Use these ideas to consider the ways of data collection used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures.
Suggested time
1 hour7–8 Cyber security card game: know your risks
Play this card game to discuss what personal information should be shared.
Requires
 printed cards (documents provided)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 judge and discuss what kinds of personal data should or should not be shared.
7–8 What's your brand?
Use this lesson from the Office of the eSafety Commissioner to include data privacy as part of cyber safety.
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 explore strategies for controlling privacy of their own personal data, through the lens of ‘digital reputation’.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

micro:bit Science experiments
Find out more 
CORGIS
Find out more 
generatedata.com
Find out more 
Australian Privacy Principles quick reference
Find out more
7–8 micro:bit Science experiments
Use this series of lessons to practise gathering data from the micro:bit electronic device. This lesson series is not intended as an introduction to coding the micro:bit. See the unit ‘Creating a digital solution’ for options to introduce this device.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 class set of micro:bits
Suggested time
6 hourEnables students to:
 use sensors on the micro:bit to gather data on temperature, soil moisture, gravity and more
 gather the data to another device, including into spreadsheet format.
7–8 CORGIS
Use this site to download datasets in forms that can be readily worked with in Python and other generalpurpose programming languages.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 download dataset in the form of Python modules for smart use in Python programming projects
 download datasets in JSON format for use in Python or JavaScript
 download datasets in CSV format for use in spreadsheet software.
7–8 generatedata.com
Use websites like this to generate test data for use in spreadsheets and databases.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 generate random test data when realworld data is not available
 export this data into a spreadsheet or other forms.
7–8 Australian Privacy Principles quick reference
Quickly look up any of the 13 Australian Privacy Principles, including with a poster.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 look up the principles that outline the responsibilities of organisations in Australia when it comes to collecting using and keeping data.
Further reading and professional learning

Data knowledge and skills tutorial  gathering data
Find out more 
Data knowledge and skills tutorial  authenticating data
Find out more 
Australian Data Science Education Institute
Find out more 
Guide to data analytics and the Australian Privacy Principles
Find out more
7–8 Data knowledge and skills tutorial  gathering data
Follow this video tutorial designed for teachers of Years 7–8 students.
Suggested time
12 minutes7–8 Data knowledge and skills tutorial  authenticating data
Continue from the previous video with this tutorial designed for teachers of Years 7–8 students.
Suggested time
9 minutes7–8 Australian Data Science Education Institute
Visit and subscribe to this website for resources on teaching data science.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Guide to data analytics and the Australian Privacy Principles
Refer to official advice provided to organisations by the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner.
Suggested time
30 minutesSpreadsheets
What is this about?
Spreadsheets are a powerful tool with applications in everyday life as well as study and work. Beyond entering data in a table format, students will apply spreadsheet skills like filtering, formulas and chart creation.
Content descriptions
Analyse and visualise data using a range of software, including spreadsheets and databases, to draw conclusions and make predictions by identifying trends AC9TDI8P02
Model and query the attributes of objects and events using structured data AC9TDI8P03
Investigate and manage the digital footprint existing systems and student solutions collect and assess if the data is essential to their purpose AC9TDI8P14
This sequence enables students to:
 clean a spreadsheet by filtering data that is unnecessary for purpose
 depersonalise a spreadsheet by removing data that unnecessarily contributes to a digital footprint
 apply spreadsheet formulas and other techniques to analyse data
 create charts to visualise data.
Supplementary information
While Microsoft Excel is the most frequently mentioned spreadsheet tool in this unit, other popular software such as Google Sheets and Apple Numbers perform most of the same functions, such as formulas and charts. Consider which software suites are available to students in your school.
The Google Workplace Learning Center provides information about transitioning between Microsoft Excel and Google Sheets.
The Apple Learning Center provides learning materials and a user guide for working with Numbers on an iPad.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce

Information is beautiful
Find out more 
Google public data
Find out more 
Solving reallife problems in Excel
Find out more
7–8 Information is beautiful
Explore a collection of interesting and engaging data visualisations.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 be inspired by unique and interesting data visualisations.
7–8 Google public data
Engage with dynamic data visualisations that display many layers of information.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 try out data visualisations that go beyond 2D charts and line graphs.
7–8 Solving reallife problems in Excel
Use this short video to demonstrate two basic, reallife examples of using formulas in a spreadsheet.
Suggested time
5 minutesEnables students to:
 gain a nonthreatening introduction to the use of formulas in a spreadsheet.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Microsoft Excel activities
Find out more 
Weather forecast from the stratosphere
Find out more 
Data Analytics
Find out more 
Data Visualisation: finding the mode
Find out more 
Data Visualisation: tips and examples
Find out more 
Modelling data using spreadsheets
Find out more
7–8 Microsoft Excel activities
Use this series of activities and worksheets to introduce and build spreadsheet skills.
Requires
 computers, laptops or tablets
 spreadsheet software (e.g. Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Apple Numbers).
Suggested time
5 hoursEnables students to:
 learn core spreadsheet skills through activities and worksheets.
7–8 Weather forecast from the stratosphere
Use this single lesson to introduce creating a visualisation from a provided dataset in a spreadsheet
Requires
 computers, laptops or tablets
 spreadsheet software (e.g. Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Apple Numbers)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 learn core spreadsheet skills needed for creating a chart
 work with a real dataset.
7–8 Data Analytics
Use this online course to introduce principles of working with data.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 gain exposure to the use of spreadsheets for solving problems
 learn foundational principles of data analysis.
7–8 Data Visualisation: finding the mode
Use this simple game to demonstrate how the choice of visualisation can make it easier to see important information.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
15 minutesEnables students to:
 get examples of various main chart types
 be inspired by interesting data visualisations.
7–8 Data Visualisation: tips and examples
Use this webpage to show examples of chart types as well as effective visualisations and infographics.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 get examples of various main chart types
 be inspired by interesting data visualisations.
7–8 Modelling data using spreadsheets
Use this online resource to help students to learn spreadsheet skills and analysing data.
Requires
 computers, laptops or tablets
 requires free registration
Suggested time
35 hoursEnables students to:
 learn core spreadsheet skills through activities and worksheets.
Resources to extend and integrate learning
7–8 Solar energy installations
Use this lesson to perform analysis on a dataset about solar energy installations. This lesson is not recommended for introducing spreadsheets.
Requires
 computers, laptops or tablets
 spreadsheet software (e.g. Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Apple Numbers)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 perform an investigation on a real dataset available online
 apply spreadsheet skills to analyse data and create visualisations.
Further reading and professional learning

Microsoft Excel
Find out more 
Data knowledge and skills tutorial  authenticating data
Find out more 
Data knowledge and skills tutorial  structuring data in a spreadsheet
Find out more 
Data knowledge and skills tutorial  analysing and visualising data
Find out more 
Microsoft Excel tutorial for begginers
Find out more
7–8 Microsoft Excel
Use the builtin tutorials in Excel (available at the top of the Home screen when you first launch) to learn important skills, e.g. Formula tutorial, PivotTable tutorial.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Data knowledge and skills tutorial  authenticating data
This tutorial designed for teachers of Years 7–8 students.
Suggested time
9 minutes7–8 Data knowledge and skills tutorial  structuring data in a spreadsheet
This tutorial designed for teachers of Years 7–8 students.
Suggested time
15 minutes7–8 Data knowledge and skills tutorial  analysing and visualising data
This tutorial designed for teachers of Years 7–8 students.
Suggested time
11 minutes7–8 Microsoft Excel tutorial for begginers
Use this extensive tutorial video to learn foundational spreadsheet skills.
Suggested time
3 hoursDatabases
What is this about?
Databases allow data to be structured in more complex and organised ways than is possible in a flat spreadsheet. Grouping data as attributes within records is the first step in working with databases. Students also make queries to select only data that meets particular criteria, including with Structured Query Language (SQL).
Content description
Analyse and visualise data using a range of software, including spreadsheets and databases, to draw conclusions and make predictions by identifying trends AC9TDI8P02
Model and query the attributes of objects and events using structured data AC9TDI8P03
This sequence enables students to:
 explore the record structure for data
 make queries on a singletable database to select data that meets particular criteria.
Supplementary information
Only singletable databases are addressed in this unit for Years 7–8. This permits understanding of the object/record structure for data, but does not require a thorough demonstration of how relational databases allow more complex organisation of data (see Years 9–10).
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
7–8 Database tutorial for beginners
Watch the first 3 minutes of this video to learn why a database is often used instead of a spreadsheet. This video moves on to more complex topics after the first 3 minutes
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 receive an introduction to how and why a database is structured differently to a spreadsheet.
7–8 What is SQL?
Watch this short video for a basic intro into SQL, the standard language interacting with databases.
Suggested time
4 minutesEnables students to:
 get a brief introduction to what SQL is, and how it allows data to be requested from a database (as well as added, removed or updated).
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Databases
Find out more 
Databases unplugged
Find out more 
Intro to SQL
Find out more 
The Bike Shop
Find out more 
How to use Microsoft Access
Find out more 
OpenOffice Base
Find out more
7–8 Databases
Use this short Bitesize revision module with test to outline the basic terms and concepts for databases.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 define terms such as record, field, query, form and report
 identify basic database concepts.
7–8 Databases unplugged
Select unplugged activities from this sequence to model database records and SQL queries.
Requires
 variety of classroom stationary
 occasional printouts (document included or linked)
Suggested time
4 hoursEnables students to:
 describe SQL queries from a database.
7–8 Intro to SQL
Use this online course to learn and practise SQL in an automarked environment.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
3 hoursEnables students to:
 learn SQL with an existing, online database
 practice SQL queries in an auto marked environment.
7–8 The Bike Shop
Use this task to practise making SQL queries for a singletable database.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 write and test SQL queries for an existing singletable database.
7–8 How to use Microsoft Access
Follow this short but comprehensive video to create a simple database in Microsoft Access. This video also demonstrates table relationships (multiple tables) and crosstable queries, which do not need to be addressed in Years 7–8.
Requires
 Computers or laptops
 installation of Microsoft Access (part of Microsoft Office suites)
Suggested time
31 minutesEnables students to:
 create a database as a single file on their computer or laptop (no remote or local server required)
 practice queries, forms and reports.
7–8 OpenOffice Base
Use this free alternative to Microsoft Access for creating simple databases offline, without setting up servers. OpenOffice Base contains much of the same functionality as Microsoft Access, allowing students to create and manage a database as a single file on their computer or laptop
Requires
 computers or laptops
 installation of OpenOffice (free alternative to Microsoft Office)
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 create a database as a single file on their computer or laptop (no remote or local server required)
 practise queries, forms and reports.
Resources to extend and integrate learning
7–8 Computer Science Principles: Data
Use this unit to work with database data using the AppLab environment, combining programming with data analysis.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free code.org accounts
Suggested time
9 hoursEnables students to:
 learn data science principles alongside programming skills at their own pace, with a teacher dashboard to monitor progress.
Further reading and professional learning
7–8 SQL tutorial on w3schools
Use this free resource to quickly look up SQL concepts with straightforward examples.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Access
Use this free videodriven course to learn how to use Microsoft Access for managing a database offline on your own computer or laptop.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Digital Technology
This textbook contains chapters on databases.
Suggested time
30 minutesGeneralpurpose programming
Overview
This unit introduces skills and tools for designing and testing algorithms, building up to the use of nested control structures and functions. Students are also introduced to coding in a generalpurpose programming language like Python or JavaScript.
Achievement standards
By the end of Year 8 students design and trace algorithms and implement them in a generalpurpose programming language.
Australian Curriculum
Content descriptions
Generating and designing AC9TDI8P05, AC9TDI8P06
Producing and implementing AC9TDI8P09
Related content and General capabilities
Mathematics: Space AC9M7SP04, AC9M8SP04
Digital Literacy: Creating and exchanging, Managing and operating
Critical and Creative Thinking
This topic enables students to
 use flowcharts and pseudocode to follow and design algorithms
 code and test programs in a generalpurpose programming language such as Python or JavaScript
 transition from visual programming (e.g. Scratch) to generalpurpose programming, if appropriate.
Supplementary information
This unit focuses on building specific skills through concept introduction and exercises in pure code implementation without the use of robots or electronics (though these can also be valid contexts for introducing these skills). The unit ‘Creating a digital solution’ is designed to incorporate skills from this unit into a purposeful design project, with options to explicitly incorporate electronics such as the micro:bit.
Watch this video for a quick overview of the unit and how to use its resources with your students.
Assessment View assessment advice
Achievement standards
Digital Technologies: Years 78
By the end of Year 8 students design and trace algorithms and implement them in a generalpurpose programming language.
Assessment tasks
Options with a coding platform
Consider whether your chosen coding platform offers additional challenges that you can use for assessment of coding skills, or a ‘playground’ environment for students to complete custom coding challenges you set.
Module/task approach
An entire coding project may be difficult to assess for specific skills. Consider posing specific, smaller tasks of different complexity levels and types. For example, an algorithm (flowchart and/or pseudocode) is provided for some, while others require students to design and/or trace the algorithm first. Some are halfcompleted code, while others have errors to spot and correct.
A coding rubric
Consider a rubric that allows each skill to be assessed. Try this as a starting point: Word, PDF.
Test question banks
Selected questions from the Secondary question banks may help test student understanding of concepts in algorithms, flowcharts and code implementation.
The Gauntlet of Riddles
An example assessment task for algorithms and implementation, including its own rubrics.
Assessment advice
Use these suggested areas of focus to assess student skills, processes and knowledge.
Interpreting, designing and testing algorithms
Assess levels of complexity and proficiency in:
 interpreting and designing flowcharts and pseudocode
 understanding nested control structures
 tracing algorithms.
Code implementation
Assess levels of complexity and proficiency in:
 coding algorithms that include nested control structures (iteration, branching), variables and input
 writing and calling functions in code
 coding for readability and internal documentation (comments)
 formally testing code.
Unit sequence
This topic offers 2 pathways
Core Unit
Flowcharts and pseudocode
Students design algorithms represented as flowcharts and as pseudocode.Programming in Python
Using Python, students implement algorithms as programs and practise tracing errors.Programming in JavaScript
Using JavaScript, students implement algorithms as programs and practise tracing errors.Flowcharts and pseudocode
What is this about?
Students build and consolidate their knowledge and skills in the design of algorithms represented as flowcharts and as pseudocode. They follow and create algorithms that include nested control structures, and practise tracing to test and predict their algorithms.
Content description
Design algorithms involving nested control structures and represent them using flowcharts and pseudocode AC9TDI8P05
Trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors AC9TDI8P06
This sequence enables students to:
 follow and trace algorithms in the form of flowcharts
 follow and trace algorithms in the form of pseudocode
 design algorithms that include nested control structures (loops and branching).
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
Years 7–8 What's an algorithm?
Watch this video to introduce pseudocode.
Suggested time
5 minutesEnables students to:
 explore the concept of an algorithm
 get a first glimpse of pseudocode.
7–8 Introduction to flowcharts
Watch this video and the next in its playlist to introduce flowcharts.
Suggested time
5 minutesEnables students to:
 learn the basic flowchart symbols
 see worked examples of algorithms represented as flowcharts.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Successful pseudocoding
Find out more 
Algorithm terminology quiz
Find out more 
Trace tables tutorial
Find out more 
Using trace tables
Find out more 
Flowchart prediction tables
Find out more 
draw.io
Find out more
7–8 Successful pseudocoding
Use this lesson sequence to learn pseudocode conventions and perform tracing.
Requires
 printed text (document provided)
Suggested time
6 hoursEnables students to:
 practise writing pseudocode with exercises
 practise tracing algorithms with exercises.
7–8 Algorithm terminology quiz
Practise interpreting pseudocode with this online quiz.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 practise following and interpreting pseudocode.
7–8 Trace tables tutorial
Watch this video for an introduction to using a trace table.
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 observe a worked example of using a trace table to test a pseudocode algorithm.
7–8 Using trace tables
Practise using trace tables with this online activity. This activity can be followed with code breaking and average night's sleep survey.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 practise tracing pseudocode with trace tables.
7–8 Flowchart prediction tables
Practise interpreting flowcharts with these three online exercises. This activity can be followed with code breaking and average night's sleep survey.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 practise following and interpreting flowcharts.
7–8 draw.io
Use this free online tool to draw flowcharts, among other diagrams. Common software like Microsoft PowerPoint and Google Slides can also be used to draw flowcharts.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 use standard symbols to draw flowcharts
 common software.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

Finding the shortest path
Find out more 
Trace tables  condensed method
Find out more 
Mermaid
Find out more 
Flowgorithm
Find out more 
Bebras
Find out more 
Why algorithms are called algorithms
Find out more
Years 7–8 Finding the shortest path
Use this lesson to introduce students to the famous Travelling Salesman algorithmic problem.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 printed worksheet (document provided)
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 design algorithms to solve a common problem – finding the shortest path through a series of points.
7–8 Trace tables  condensed method
Watch this video for an example of tracing an algorithm that contains nested control structures.
Suggested time
6 minutesEnables students to:
 observe a worked example of using a trace table to test a pseudocode algorithm that contains branching inside of a loop.
7–8 Mermaid
Use this free online tool to generate flowcharts from text scripts in a straightforward syntax. The scripts used to specify flowcharts in Mermaid are not a generalpurpose programming language.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 generate flowcharts using text scripts.
7–8 Flowgorithm
Use this free tool to create flowcharts and automatically show them as pseudocode and real code.
Requires
 Windows computers or laptops
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 create flowcharts in a form closer to pseudocode and real code
 view and export their flowcharts as pseudocode, Python or JavaScript, among other languages.
7–8 Bebras
Challenge students with algorithmic thinking tasks designed for Years 7–8.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
2 hoursEnables students to:
 complete online or unplugged tasks that require algorithmic thinking
 register and compete in a biannual competition (optional).
7–8 Why algorithms are called algorithms
Watch this video for some historical insight into the man whose name became our word ‘algorithm’.
Suggested time
3 minutesEnables students to:
 enjoy some history about the origin of algorithms.
Further reading and professional learning

Higher or lower number game
Find out more 
Promoting effective computing pedagogy
Find out more 
Algorithms infographic: Years 7–10
Find out more
7–8 Higher or lower number game
View the complete flowchart for this game based on a popular search algorithm involving branching nested within a loop. Consider how you might scaffold the construction of this flowchart (or equivalent pseudocode) with your class.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Promoting effective computing pedagogy
Read useful twopage articles on coding pedagogy, including Code tracing and PRIMM. Podcasts also available.
Suggested time
30 minutesYears 7–8 Algorithms infographic: Years 7–10
Use this infographic as a guide to view ways algorithms are covered for Years 7–8.
Suggested time
30 minutesProgramming in Python
What is this about?
Python is a popular generalpurpose programming language introduced to Years 7–8 students, which emphasises readability of code. Using Python, students can implement algorithms as programs that can be run. Additionally, students can be introduced to the use of functions for organising code.
Content description
Design algorithms involving nested control structures and represent them using flowcharts and pseudocode AC9TDI8P05
Trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors AC9TDI8P06
Implement, modify and debug programs involving control structures and functions in a generalpurpose programming language AC9TDI8P09
This sequence enables students to:
 learn to write and test code in Python, optionally transitioning from visual code (e.g. Blockly, Scratch)
 understand and practise writing and calling functions in their code.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
7–8 Hour of code
Search ‘python’ at the linked page and choose a short coding activity or course created for introducing Python. the Hour of Code site brings together free short courses from many different online platforms, but further content on a platform may not be free. Additionally, some may require specific hardware or software installation.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 try a short introduction to python programming in a coding environment.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Visualtotext coding course
Find out more 
Python for beginners
Find out more 
Introduction to coding
Find out more 
Replit.com
Find out more 
Python Tutor
Find out more 
Thonny
Find out more
7–8 Visualtotext coding course
Choose this online lesson series to facilitate a transition from visual code to Python or JavaScript, with an emphasis on algorithm design.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
20 hoursEnables students to:
 undertake a series of lessons designed to be run by a teacher
 focus on how visual programs (e.g. Scratch) can be programmed in Python and JavaScript.
7–8 Python for beginners
Choose this online course to provide students with interactive, selfmarking coding exercises.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
12 hoursEnables students to:
 learn Python programming concepts at their own pace, with a teacher dashboard to monitor progress
 complete exercises in an interactive, selfmarking coding environment.
7–8 Introduction to coding
Choose this online course to introduce Python through a series of introductory videos and coding exercises. algorithm complexity as expected in the Years 7–8 curriculum, this course should be followed by Intermediate coding.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
816 hoursEnables students to:
 learn python programming concepts at their own pace, or with teacher direction
 write programs with the help of video walkthroughs.
7–8 Replit.com
Use this online environment to write and test Python programs.
Requires
 internet access
 computers or laptops
 free replit.com accounts (tied to individual email addresses)
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 write and test Python code in an online Integrated Development Environment (IDE).
7–8 Python Tutor
Use this online tool to visualise Python code as you run it.
Requires
 internet access
 computers or laptops
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 write Python code, then step through linebyline
 show visualisations of the variables in their code.
7–8 Thonny
Use this tool for a very basic offline environment to code in Python. Thonny must be installed on Windows, Mac or Linux.
Requires
 Computers or laptops
 Internet access
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 write and test Python code in a simple IDE without relying on online environments
 show visualisations of the variables in their code.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

Coding a sentimental chatbot in Python
Find out more 
NCSS challenge Python
Find out more 
Intro to computer science in Python
Find out more 
Minecraft for Education
Find out more 
Visual Studio Code
Find out more
7–8 Coding a sentimental chatbot in Python
Apply Python coding to build a chatbot that uses natural language processing.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
8 hoursEnables students to:
 practice Python coding with the help of demonstration videos
 develop a conversational program that performs sentimental analysis to detect emotion in text.
7–8 NCSS challenge Python
Provide online coding challenges for students during February and July (beginners or intermediate streams).
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
5 weeksEnables students to:
 practise Python coding with the help of demonstration videos
 develop a conversational program that performs sentiment analysis to detect emotion in text.
7–8 Intro to computer science in Python
Choose this online platform to customise a sequence of modules for your class.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free CodeHS accounts
Suggested time
20 hoursEnables students to:
 learn Python programming concepts at their own pace, with a teacher dashboard to monitor progress
 take on more advanced modules with customisation by their teacher.
7–8 Minecraft for Education
Explore Python coding in the Minecraft environment. Minecraft: Education Edition must be installed on Windows, Mac, Chromebook, iOS or Android.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
11 hoursEnables students to:
 learn and practise Python coding within a Minecraft environment customised for education.
7–8 Visual Studio Code
Use this software for a fullfeatured offline environment to code in Python. Visual Studio Code must be installed on Windows, Mac or Linux.
Requires
 Computers or laptops
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 write and test Python code in a fullfeatured IDE without relying on online environments.
Further reading and professional learning

Python courses on Codeacademy
Find out more 
17 fun python activities for beginners
Find out more 
Learn Python on w3schools
Find out more 
Promoting effective computing pedagogy
Find out more 
Programming infographic: Years 710
Find out more
7–8 Python courses on Codeacademy
Choose one of the free courses if you prefer a separate, nonschooltailored environment to skill yourself up in Python programming.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 17 fun python activities for beginners
Use this list to get ideas for programming challenges to set your students.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Learn Python on w3schools
Use this free resource to quickly look up Python concepts with straightforward examples.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Promoting effective computing pedagogy
Read useful twopage articles on coding pedagogy, including worked examples, live coding and PRIMM. Podcasts also available.
Suggested time
30 minutes7–8 Programming infographic: Years 710
Use this infographic as a guide to view ways programming is covered for Years 7–8.
Suggested time
30 minutesProgramming in JavaScript
What is this about?
JavaScript is a generalpurpose programming language that is also used to make webpages interactive. Using JavaScript, students can implement algorithms as programs that can be run. Additionally, students are introduced to the use of functions for organising code.
Content descriptions
Design algorithms involving nested control structures and represent them using flowcharts and pseudocode AC9TDI8P05
Trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors AC9TDI8P06
Implement, modify and debug programs involving control structures and functions in a generalpurpose programming language AC9TDI8P09
This sequence enables students to:
 learn to write and test code in JavaScript, optionally transitioning from visual code (e.g. Blockly, Scratch)
 understand and practise writing and calling functions in their code.
Resources to include
Resources to introduce
7–8 Hour of code
Search ‘javascript’ at the linked page and choose a short coding activity or course created for introducing JavaScript. the Hour of Code site brings together free short courses from many different online platforms, but further content on a platform may not be free. Additionally, some may require specific hardware or software installation.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
1 hourEnables students to:
 try a short introduction to JavaScript programming in a coding environment.
7–8 Geography mini
Try a short course that dives into HTML, CSS and JavaScript with a geography connection.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
5 hoursEnables students to:
 explore some basic HTML, CSS and JavaScript programming at their own pace, with a teacher dashboard to monitor progress
 complete exercises in an interactive, selfmarking coding environment.
Resources to develop and consolidate learning

Visual to text coding course
Find out more 
Game lab
Find out more 
Webpages with JavaScript
Find out more 
Replit.com
Find out more 
Python Tutor
Find out more
7–8 Visual to text coding course
Choose this online lesson series to facilitate a transition from visual code to Python or JavaScript, with an emphasis on algorithm design.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
20 hoursEnables students to:
 undertake a series of lessons designed to be run by a teacher
 focus on how visual programs (e.g. Scratch) can be programmed in Python and JavaScript.
7–8 Game lab
Choose the unit ‘Animations and games’ from the Computer Science Discoveries course to provide students with interactive coding exercises.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free code.org accounts
Enables students to:
 learn JavaScript programming concepts at their own pace, with a teacher
 alternate between typing code and using blocks
 complete exercises in an interactive coding environment.
7–8 Webpages with JavaScript
Choose this online course to work with HTML, CSS and JavaScript, providing students with interactive, selfmarking coding exercises. If students are new to HTML, this course should be preceded HTML/CSS starter.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free Grok learning accounts
Suggested time
10 hoursEnables students to:
 learn JavaScript programming concepts in the context of webpages with HTML and CSS, with a teacher dashboard to monitor progress
 complete exercises in an interactive, selfmarking coding environment.
7–8 Replit.com
Use this online environment to write and test JavaScript programs. selecting 'Node.js' when creating a project allows for a direct JavaScript programming experience. Selecting 'HTML, CSS, JS' starts a project with a webpage development experience.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free replit.com accounts (tied to individual email addresses)
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 write and test JavaScript code in an online IDE.
7–8 Python Tutor
Despite the name, use this online tool to visualise JavaScript code as you run it.
Requires
 internet access
 computers or laptops
Suggested time
30 minutesEnables students to:
 write JavaScript code then step through linebyline
 show visualisations of the variables in their code.
Resources to extend and integrate learning

Coding for GUIs course
Find out more 
Rock, paper, scissors, AI!
Find out more 
App lab
Find out more 
CoSpaces Edu
Find out more
7–8 Coding for GUIs course
Continue from the visualtotext coding course to create interactive webpages with HTML, CSS and JavaScript.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
Suggested time
10 hoursEnables students to:
 undertake a series of lessons designed to be run by a teacher
 focus on principles of user interface while using JavaScript code to make webpages interactive.
7–8 Rock, paper, scissors, AI!
Use this guided project to apply JavaScript code for training a computer vision AI model.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets with webcam
 free P5 accounts (see the resource for info about P5)
Suggested time
3 hoursEnables students to:
 train an AI model to recognise rock, paper and scissors hand gestures
 apply JavaScript code with the trained AI model to develop a rock, paper, scissors game that watches their hand.
7–8 App lab
Choose Units 3 to 7 from the Computer Science Principles course to provide students with interactive coding exercises.
Requires
 internet access
 computers, laptops or tablets
 free code.org accounts
Suggested time
40 hoursEnables students to:
 learn JavaScript programming concepts at their own pace, with a teacher
 alternate between typing code and using blocks
 complete exercises in an interactive coding environment.
7–8 CoSpaces Edu
Create a 3D world to engage with in AR and VR, then use JavaScript code to make it interactive. This environment uses TypeScript, a language that is functionally identical to JavaScript for most Year 7–8 coding requirements.
Requires
 internet access
 computers or laptops
 paid CoSpaces licenses
Suggested time
30 hoursEnables students to:
 construct a 3D environment with objects, furniture and characters
 use JavaScript code to make the world interactive
 with appropriate hardware, enter into your world with Virtual Reality (VR) or Augmented Reality (AR).
Further reading and professional learning

JavaScript courses on Codeacademy
Find out more 
JavaScript tutorial on W3Schools
Find out more 
Promoting effective computing pedagogy
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Programming infographic: years 710
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7–8 JavaScript courses on Codeacademy
Choose one of the free courses if you prefer a separate, nonschooltailored environment to skill yourself up in JavaScript programming.
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30 minutes7–8 JavaScript tutorial on W3Schools
Use this free resource to quickly look up JavaScript concepts with straightforward examples.
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30 minutes7–8 Promoting effective computing pedagogy
Read useful twopage articles on coding pedagogy, including worked examples, live coding and PRIMM. Podcasts also available.
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